Relation of fever intensity and antipyretic use with specific antibody response after two doses of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine

The reactogenicity of the BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine has been commonly reported and antipyretic medications are often used for mitigating adverse reactions.
Possible associations between the reactogenicity events and Bio Med Frontiers specific antibody responses have not been fully investigated, nor has the influence of using antipyretics.
Serum samples were collected from hospital healthcare workers with no COVID-19 history and the SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific IgG titer after two doses was measured.
The degree of solicited adverse reactions in a day, including the highest body temperature, were reported using a self-reporting diary for five days after each dose.
The highest body temperature during the five days was divided into three grades (<37.0 °C, 37.0-37.9 °C, or ≥ 38.0 °C). Self-medicated antipyretics were reported using a questionnaire.
The data of 335 participants were available for analysis. Multivariate analysis extracted the fever grade after the second dose (standardized coefficient beta = 0.301, p < 0.0001), female sex (beta = 0.196, p = 0.0014), and age (beta = -0.119, p = 0.0495) as being significantly correlated with the IgG titers.
The positive correlation of the fever grade after the second dose with the IgG titers was also observed when analyzed by sex and age.
The use of antipyretics did not interfere with the IgG titers irrespective of the fever grade.
 The fever intensity after the second dose was associated with the IgG titer and antipyretic medications may be beneficial to mitigate the suffering from adverse reactions, without interfering with the acquisition of sufficient antibody responses.

Cervical Precancers and Cancers Attributed to HPV Types by Race and Ethnicity: Implications for Vaccination, Screening, and Management.

Background: Racial and ethnic variations in attribution of cervical precancer and cancer to HPV types may result in different HPV vaccine protection, screening test coverage, and clinical management.
Methods: Pooling data from seven U.S. studies, we calculated the proportional attribution of precancers and cancers to HPV types using HPV DNA typing from diagnosis. Study About All statistical tests were 2-sided.
For all racial and ethnic groups, most cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3) (n = 5,526) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cases (n = 1,138) were attributed to types targeted by the 9-valent vaccine.
A higher proportion of CIN3s were attributed to non-vaccine HPV types among non-Hispanic Black women (15.8%) compared with non-Hispanic Asian or Pacific Islander (9.7%, P=.002), non-Hispanic White (9.2%, P<.001), and Hispanic women (11.3%, P=.004).
The proportion of SCCs attributed to 9-valent types was similar by race and ethnicity (90.4%-93.8%, P = .80). A higher proportion of CIN3s was attributed to non-vaccine HPV35 among non-Hispanic Black (9.0%) compared with non-Hispanic Asian or Pacific Islander (2.2%), non-Hispanic White (2.5%), and Hispanic women (3.0%, all P<.001). Compared with CIN3, the proportion of SCCs attributed to HPV35 among Non-Hispanic Black women (3.2%) was lower and closer to other groups (0.3%-2.1%, P = .70).
The 9-valent HPV vaccine will prevent nearly all cervical precancers and invasive cancers among major racial and ethnic groups in the United States.
Adding HPV35 to vaccines could prevent a small percentage of CIN3s and SCCs, with greater potential impact for CIN3s among Black women. HPV screening tests target high-risk HPV types, including HPV35. Future genotyping triage strategies could consider the importance of HPV35 and other HPV16 related types.

Combined Prospective Seroconversion and PCR Data of Selected Cohorts Indicate a High Rate of Subclinical SARS-CoV-2 Infections-an Open Observational Study in Lower Saxony, Germany.

Despite lockdown measures, intense symptom-based PCR, and antigen testing, the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic spread further.
In this open observational study conducted in Lower Saxony, Germany, voluntary SARS-CoV-2 PCR tests were performed from April 2020 until June 2021, supported by serum antibody testing to prove whether PCR testing in subjects with none or few symptoms of COVID-19 is a suitable tool to manage the pandemic.
In different mobile stations, 4,817 subjects from three different working fields participated in the PCR testing.
Serum antibody screening using the SARS-CoV-2 ViraChip IgG (Viramed, Germany) and the Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 assay (Roche, Germany) was performed alongside virus neutralization testing.
Subjects were questioned regarding comorbidities and COVID-19 symptoms.
Fifty-one subjects with acute SARS-CoV-2 infection were detected of which 31 subjects did not show any symptoms possibly characteristic for COVID-19. An additional 37 subjects reported a previous SARS-CoV-2 infection (total prevalence 1.82%).
Seroconversion was discovered in 58 subjects with known SARS-CoV-2 infection and in 58 subjects that never had a positive PCR test. The latter had a significantly lower Charlson Comorbidity Index, and one third of them were asymptomatic. In 50% of all seroconverted subjects, neutralizing serum antibodies (NAbs) were detectable in parallel to N/S1 (n = 16) or N/S1/S2 antigen specific antibodies (n = 40) against SARS-CoV-2. NAb titers decreased within 100 days after PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 acute infection by at least 2.5-fold.
A relatively high rate of subclinical SARS-CoV-2 infections may contribute to the spread of SARS-CoV-2, suggesting that in addition to other intervention strategies, systematic screening of asymptomatic persons by PCR testing may significantly enable better pandemic control. Within this open observational study, repeated PCR (n > 4,700) and antibody screening (n > 1,600) tests were offered in three different working fields.
The study identified 51 subjects with acute SARS-CoV-2 infection and 37 subjects reported to have had a positive PCR test taken externally.
Thirty-one of the 51 subjects did not display any symptoms prior to testing. In addition, 58 subjects without PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were identified by seroconversion.
Subjects, that had undergone SARS-CoV-2 infection without having noticed, more often had a low grade of immunization with no NAbs, but may have relevantly contributed to the spread of the pandemic.
Based on these results, we suggest that both regular PCR and rapid test screening of symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals, specifically within groups or workplaces identifiable as having close quarter contact, thus increased infection transference risk, is necessary to better assess and therefore reduce the spread of a pandemic virus.

Anti-HBs titers are not decreased after treatment with oral Cladribine in patients with Multiple Sclerosis vaccinated against Hepatitis B virus.

Oral cladribine is a novel treatment for Multiple Sclerosis (MS). It is a purine nucleoside antimetabolite analogue that is incorporated into the DNA, resulting in single-strand breaks in DNA and apoptosis of replicating lymphocytes. Specifically, Cladribine induces limited depletion of CD4 and CD8 T cell subsets and more marked depletion of memory B cell subsets.
Therefore, natural and acquired humoral responses against pathogens may be potentially reduced. The aim of this study was to assess longitudinal variation of antiHBs titers in patients with MS treated with Cladribine.
 Patients with MS treated with 1 cycle of Cladribine (3,5 mg/kg) and previously vaccinated against Hepatitis B virus (HBV) were enrolled. Anti-HBs titers were compared before and after 12 months from Cladribine treatment.
Total lymphocyte count was also analysed.

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 Among the 13 RMS patients (10 F, 3 M, mean age 33,8, SD 5,9) enrolled, all had anti-HBs titers >10 mg/dl at baseline. Anti-HBs titer dropped below the reference value at 12 months after Cladribine only in 1 case. Pre-post Cladribine mean anti-HBs values were not significantly different considering the whole cohort (Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney Test p = 0,762). Four patients had grade 1 and 1 patient grade 2 lymphocytopenia at 12 months.
Cladribine does not seem to reduce humoral immune responses in subjects previously vaccinated against HBV, even in case of lymphocytopenia. These results, if confirmed in larger populations, appear reassuring also for other vaccinations (i.e. COVID19). The low impact of Cladribine on plasma cells may explain such findings.

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